Ruzivo diki nezve aluminium

luminum chokwadi inokupa iyo ruzivo rwechisikigo chinhu chinoshandiswa mune akawanda marudzi maindasitiri. Aluminiyamu inoonekwa sechinhu chinotonhorera. Iyo yazvino, yakapfava, yakasimba uye yakapfava. Iwe unogona kuwana aluminium inoshandiswa kugadzira inogona, bhodhoro uye zvimwe zvigadzirwa zvakawanda. Heano mamwe eanonakidza zvokwadi nezve aluminium…

Zvichida, iwe haugone kuziva izvozvo :

Anopfuura makore zana apfuura, kilo yealuminium yaidhura zvinopfuura chiuru rubles.

Muna 1899, masayendisiti eBritish akaendesa kuna Dmitrii Mendeleev zviyero, zvakagadzirwa negoridhe uye aluminium. Iye zvino, kilogiramu yesimbi iyi inodhura zvishoma pane ruble. Pamusoro pehafu yekutanga yezana redu ramakore, kugadzirwa kwealuminium kwepasi kwakawedzera neanopfuura ka250 nguva, kusvika parinosvika mamirioni mashanu; maererano neshoriyamu, aluminium gadzira kugadzirwa inosvika yechipiri mushure mekugadzirwa kwesimbi.

Aluminium inopfuura 2,5 times yakareruka kupfuura simbi, katatu nguva - mhangura, ina nguva - sirivheri. Pane tembiricha yakajairika, aluminium haina ngura mumvura, haina kugadzirira mudenga, uye inomira zvakanaka kuita kwe nitrogen, sarufa, kabhoni; iyo simbi yakafukidzwa neiyo thinnest oxide yekudzivirira firimu. Inosangana nema halojeni, caustic alkalis, sulfuric uye hydrochloric acids, ichigadzira munyu. Iyo yakagadzikana mumhinduro dzeacetic uye phosphoric acids, asi inoparara nemvura yeAmmonia. Chidimbu chealuminium, chakakanyikwa mukati meiyo nitric acid, chinoita kupesana nemamiriro emakemikari ane hutsinye.

Iyo simbi-chena simbi, inonyungudika pa660 ° C, inosvika zvakanaka waya (waya yegumi nemamirimita akareba inorema 270g chete uye inogona kukwana mubhokisi remutambo) uye nyore nyore ichipinda mumashamba akadzika siyana.

Kugara pamwe nechero chidiki chemamwe masimbi (uye iwo anoumba alloys pamwe neese simbi) kunowedzera zvakanyanya kusimba kwealuminium. Anopfuura mazana maviri emahara akasiyana anozivikanwa, uye huwandu hwawo huri kuwedzera gore rega rega, uye hunhu hwacho huri kuita zviri nani. Chikuru chinoshandiswa ndeye duralumin, iyo yekuwedzera kune aluminium ine anenge mashanu% emhangura, magnesium uye iron. Siluminiy (4-12% silicon), lautal (4% mhangura, 2% titanium), scleron - mubatanidzwa wealuminium nendarira, nickel, manganese, silicon uye lithiamu zvinozivikanwa zvakanyanya muindasitiri.

Aluminiyamu nemadheti ayo akabatsira munhu kukunda chinhu chemhepo, kuvaka magetsi uye akareba echitima njanji nezvikepe zvegungwa. Ndosaka alumumu ichiwanzonzi simbi ine mapapiro. Iwo mapapiro uye fuselages yendege, zvikamu zvemotokari, mafuremu edzimba dzakajairwa, zvigaro, mibhedha, matafura uye zviuru zvezvimwe zvigadzirwa zvakagadzirwa nealuminium uye aloalo. MuEngland chete, mumashure mehondo, makotoni anopfuura zviuru makumi manomwe emahara akavakwa. Zvivakwa zvechikoro zviri kuvakwa ipapo kubva kualuminium. Zvivakwa zvakakura zvakagadzirwa nealuminiyamu (uye mapurasitiki) zvakavakirwa muMoscow - Imba yemaCongress muKremlin uye Imba yePioneers paLenin Hills.

Aluminiyamu inodikanwa nemagetsi, dyira. Kunyangwe mashandiro ayo emagetsi akangoita hafu yepasi peayo emhangura, waya dzealuminium dzakabudirira kutsiva ndarira. Iine upamhi iyo inopa iyo yakafanana magetsi conductor, ivo 2 times vakareruka pane yendarira. Yakapetwa aluminium chikamu chemazhinji pendi.

Kana shizha rakatetepa realuminium foil parinopisa kusvika pama7-7 magiramu, rinopenya nemwenje inopenya, ichipenya, zvichiburitsa huwandu hwakawanda hwekupisa. Iko kushandiswa kwealuminium mukutora mafoto kwemhepo isina hutsi kunoenderana neino pfuma (yeagneti magnesium nguva dzose inoburitsa hunyoro chena haze). Kuti zvive nyore kune vemifananidzo, mwenje yakakosha inogadzirwa nezvimedu zvealuminium foil uye yakatetepa, inonyanya kupisa waya. Kana iyo yazvino yashandurwa, waya inoburitsa foil.

Nechepasi pasi aluminium yakasanganiswa neiyo oxide yeimwe imwe simbi (iron, chromium, calcium) inotora oxygen kubva mairi, ichidzorera simbi. Musanganiswa wealuminium neine iron iron oxide inonzi termite. Iko kupisa kupisa kwemusanganiswa uyu kwakanyanya, uye saka chihedheni chinoshandiswa kune welding njanji, simbi uye zvigadzirwa zvesimbi. Ivo vazere nemabhomba ezvinyorwa uye mabhomba e-artillery.

Iko kugona kwealuminium kuti igadzire huwandu hwakawanda hwekupisa painosanganiswa neokisijeni yakashanda sehwaro hwegadziriro nyowani yesimbi inonyanya kushanda - aluminiothermy.

Maitiro ealuminiothermy akawanikwa uye musayenzi akatsigirwa naNN Beketov anenge makore zana apfuura. Kubva ipapo, vawanda munzvimbo dzese dzepasi. Mune yesimbi yemazuva ano, aluminiothermy haishandiswe chete pakuita simbi, asi zvakare nekudzora simbi dzinoshandiswa kubva kune ores - vanadium, molybdenum, manganese.


Nguva yekutumira: Jan-07-2020